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Dieta ed esercizio fisico in associazione sono più efficaci nella riduzione del dolore in pazienti sovrappeso e obesi sedentari con osteoartrosi del ginocchio

17-10-2013

Messier SP, Mihalko SL, Legault C, Miller GD, Nicklas BJ, DeVita P, Beavers DP, Hunter DJ, Lyles MF, Eckstein F, Williamson JD, Carr JJ, Guermazi A, Loeser RF.
JAMA. 2013 Sep 25;310(12):1263-73.

Per verificare  se una perdita di peso pari al 10% potesse influire positivamente sulla sintomatologia artrosica, sulla funzionalità articolare e sull’espressione dei parametri d’infiammazione, una popolazione di uomini e donne con più di 55 anni, sedentari, sovrappeso e obesi (con BMI  compreso tra 27 e 41) e affetti da artrosi del ginocchio, è stata sottoposta per 18 mesi ad un rigoroso programma di controllo ponderale, che comprendeva una dieta a forte restrizione calorica, un programma di attività fisica calibrato (3 ore alla settimana), oppure l’associazione di entrambi. Al termine dei 18 mesi il gruppo che aveva seguito la dieta praticando contemporaneamente e regolarmente attività fisica aveva ottenuto il maggior calo ponderale (-11.45%). Questo traguardo aveva determinato inoltre una significativa riduzione dei sintomi e dei segni della gonartrosi (soprattutto dolore e impotenza funzionale) grazie alla diminuzione del carico sull’articolazione, oltre ad una riduzione degli indici ematici di flogosi, come la concentrazione di Interleuchina-6. La sola dieta ha dato comunque migliori risultati rispetto al solo esercizio fisico.

Glossario

  • Infiammazione

    Complesso di reazioni che si verificano localmente in risposta ad un agente lesivo. Clinicamente è caratterizzata da 4 sintomi: tumefazione, arrossamento, aumento della temperatura localmente, dolore.

Effects of intensive diet and exercise on knee joint loads, inflammation, and clinical outcomes among overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis: the IDEA randomized clinical trial.

IMPORTANCE: Knee osteoarthritis (OA), a common cause of chronic pain and disability, has biomechanical and inflammatory origins and is exacerbated by obesity.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a ≥10% reduction in body weight induced by diet, with or without exercise, would improve mechanistic and clinical outcomes more than exercise alone.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Single-blind, 18-month, randomized clinical trial at Wake Forest University between July 2006 and April 2011. The diet and exercise interventions were center-based with options for the exercise groups to transition to a home-based program. Participants were 454 overweight and obese older community-dwelling adults (age ≥55 years with body mass index of 27-41) with pain and radiographic knee OA.
INTERVENTIONS: Intensive diet-induced weight loss plus exercise, intensive diet-induced weight loss, or exercise.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Mechanistic primary outcomes: knee joint compressive force and plasma IL-6 levels; secondary clinical outcomes: self-reported pain (range, 0-20), function (range, 0-68), mobility, and health-related quality of life (range, 0-100).
RESULTS: Three hundred ninety-nine participants (88%) completed the study. Mean weight loss for diet + exercise participants was 10.6 kg (11.4%); for the diet group, 8.9 kg (9.5%); and for the exercise group, 1.8 kg (2.0%). After 18 months, knee compressive forces were lower in diet participants (mean, 2487 N; 95% CI, 2393 to 2581) compared with exercise participants (2687 N; 95% CI, 2590 to 2784, pairwise difference [Δ](exercise vs diet )= 200 N; 95% CI, 55 to 345; P = .007). Concentrations of IL-6 were lower in diet + exercise (2.7 pg/mL; 95% CI, 2.5 to 3.0) and diet participants (2.7 pg/mL; 95% CI, 2.4 to 3.0) compared with exercise participants (3.1 pg/mL; 95% CI, 2.9 to 3.4; Δ(exercise vs diet + exercise) = 0.39 pg/mL; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.81; P = .007; Δ(exercise vs diet )= 0.43 pg/mL; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.85, P = .006). The diet + exercise group had less pain (3.6; 95% CI, 3.2 to 4.1) and better function (14.1; 95% CI, 12.6 to 15.6) than both the diet group (4.8; 95% CI, 4.3 to 5.2) and exercise group (4.7; 95% CI, 4.2 to 5.1, Δ(exercise vs diet + exercise) = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.33 to 1.71; P(pain) = .004; 18.4; 95% CI, 16.9 to 19.9; Δ(exercise vs diet + exercise), 4.29; 95% CI, 2.07 to 6.50; P(function )< .001). The diet + exercise group (44.7; 95% CI, 43.4 to 46.0) also had better physical health-related quality of life scores than the exercise group (41.9; 95% CI, 40.5 to 43.2; Δ(exercise vs diet + exercise) = -2.81; 95% CI, -4.76 to -0.86; P = .005).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among overweight and obese adults with knee OA, after 18 months, participants in the diet + exercise and diet groups had more weight loss and greater reductions in IL-6 levels than those in the exercise group; those in the diet group had greater reductions in knee compressive force than those in the exercise group.

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