Una dieta ricca di magnesio per chi è ad alto rischio cardiovascolare

Guasch-Ferré M, Bulló M, Estruch R, Corella D, Martínez-González MA, Ros E, Covas M, Arós F, Gómez-Gracia E, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Muñoz MA, Serra-Majem L, Babio N, Pintó X, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Salas-Salvadó J; on behalf of the PREDIMED Study Group.
J Nutr. 2013 Nov 20. [Epub ahead of print]

06-12-2013

Un elevato apporto alimentare di magnesio svolgerebbe, secondo alcuni studi epidemiologici, effetti favorevoli sul rischio cardiovascolare. Un’ipotesi esaminata dagli autori di questo lavoro, basato sul grande studio spagnolo denominato “PrediMed” che hanno indagato, in particolare, se un apporto di magnesio alto, medio o basso si associasse ad una differente probabilità di sviluppare, nel tempo, eventi cardiovascolari, tumori o di incorrere in un decesso per qualunque causa. Il magnesio, è opportuno ricordarlo, è contenuto in molti alimenti di origine vegetale (verdura, frutta, legumi, cereali integrali).

Nonostante la procedura adottata dagli autori sia inusuale (Predimed è infatti uno studio randomizzato, nel quale soggetti ad alto rischio cardiovascolare sono stati indirizzati ad una dieta mediterranea arricchita in olio di oliva extravergine, o in frutta secca, o ad una dieta ipolipidica di controllo), i risultati ottenuti combinando i soggetti dei vari gruppi sperimentali sono interessanti. Un elevato apporto di magnesio, infatti, si associa ad una riduzione di un terzo della mortalità per qualunque causa; un effetto favorevole si osserva anche analizzando separatamente il rischio di eventi cardiovascolari o tumorali (lo studio è durato in media circa 5 anni). 

Glossario

  • Dieta mediterranea

    Regime alimentare a base di cereali integrali, legumi, ortaggi, frutta, olio d'oliva.

Dietary Magnesium Intake Is Inversely Associated with Mortality in Adults at High Cardiovascular Risk.

The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnesium intake. The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to one of two Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or advice on a low-fat control diet. Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the National Death Index and medical records. We fitted multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions to assess associations between baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of magnesium intake and relative risk of CVD and mortality. Multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between yearly repeated measurements of magnesium intake and mortality. After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and 277 cardiovascular events occurred. Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01). Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.

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